Hemodialysis Explained: Process, Importance and how to choose an ideal Dialysis Machine


Hospital facilities install simple to advanced medical and technological machinery within their dedicated infrastructures. These machines perform complex procedures to diagnose and treat patients in distress.


Physicians and the other medical staff working in a hospital must have hands-on knowledge and experience to operate such machinery. They must be familiar with the multifarious medical processes in which these machines function.


This article substantiates the importance of hemodialysis and the utility of dialyzers in a hospital. It also outlines their extreme relevance in the medical industry.


What is Haemodialysis?


In medical language, hemodialysis refers to the process of controlling blood pressure and maintaining an appropriate balance between body fluids. Physicians suggest this process to those suffering from kidney failure.


How does the Process of Haemodialysis work?


The process of hemodialysis requires the use of a machine, called a dialyzer. Also known as an artificial kidney, the purpose of a dialyzer is to remove excess water and other fluids from the kidneys.


Manufacturing companies design dialyzers with thin and semi-permeable fibrous material. This semi-permeable membrane allows the smooth passage of liquids and other small particulates through its sleek construction.


Image Source: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/kidney-failure/hemodialysis


Furthermore, the entire equipment is sealed inside a cylindrical plastic container featured with opening valves, both at the top and the bottom. Usually 2-3 inches in diameter at the opening end, the device allows the flow of the patient’s blood through the dialyzing solution (also denoted as the dialysate.


The whole process works on a cyclic principle, that is fresh dialysate enters the dialyzer from one opening, and blood enters from the other. Next, the dialysate filters out waste from the blood, which eventually enters the dialyzer to get flushed out into the drain, while transferring clean blood back to your body.


Common Causes of Kidney Failure


The common causes of kidney failure are mentioned as follows:

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)

  • Blood vessel inflammation (vasculitis)

  • Kidney inflammation (glomerulonephritis)

  • Diabetes

  • Kidney cysts (polycystic kidney disease)

Key Features of Dialysis Machines


Blood Pump

  • Blood circulation through the dialyzer and its proper transference back to the patient’s body.

  • Enabled with roller pumps for progressive pumping via the blood tubes.

  • Following the procedure pumping occlusion. If remains incomplete due to crack and faults in the tubing line), it may lead to a backflow of blood.

Dialysate Delivery System

  • It constitutes the proper amalgamation of water and concentrates material for the final dialysis process.

  • It monitors the dialysate especially its temperature, composition, and possibility of blood leakage.

  • Responsible for controlling the pressure of dialysate at an ultrafiltration rate.

  • It regulates the rate of flow of the dialysate through the dialyzing machine.

  • It also facilitates a protective mechanism to separate the blood tissues from unsafe dialysis.

  • Finally, it furnishes an outlet for system detoxification.

Safety Monitors

  • Dialyzers are integrated with safety monitoring systems such as arterial pressure monitor and venous pressure monitor.

  • These monitoring systems ensure the suction level of the dialyzing components.

System Disinfection

  • Each dialysis unit is accompanied by a documented policy of use.

  • This policy must be updated regularly to avoid the problems of system disinfection.

  • Furthermore, time-to-time disinfection methods should be encouraged to remove bacterial and viral infections.

  • A temperature greater than 85-90 degrees Celsius is required from the process of heat disinfection.

  • Medical staff can also attempt the procedures of chemical disinfection through the use of sodium hydrochloride, acetic acid, and formaldehyde.

Choosing a Dialyzer


Physicians need to choose the right dialyzer for their hospital facility. Primarily, a doctor should examine the following specifications before placing the final order:

  • Flux: Low flux‐ <10 mL/min

Mid flux‐ 10‐20 mL/min

High flux >20 mL/min respectively

  • Bio-incompatibility: Sum of specific interactions between blood and the dialyzer membranes or absence of any perturbations in the blood elements.

  • Mass transfer area coefficient (KoA): Permeability of the mass transfer barrier between blood and dialysate pathways through diffusion.

  • Hydraulic Permeability (KUF): Intrinsic characteristics of dialyzer that regulate the rate and amount of fluid flow across the dialyzer membrane.

Thus, hemodialysis is a significant process to combat the problems of kidney failure. It allows the physicians to facilitate seamless medical assistance to their patients via the help of functional dialyzing machines.


If your hospital or medical facility requires a dialyzing machine, get in touch with ZEPNURhealth at the earliest. We are a Bangalore based company that facilitates affordable and quality solutions for procuring medical and healthcare equipment in India.

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